Planning in Perspective

planI just finished reading an article by Lucien Canton, CEM – who is a well-respected and often published emergency management professional.  He maintains a blog, which he posts to often, and provides great insight to various EM-related topics.  The article that struck my interest was ‘Paper Plans and Fantasy Documents’.  Canton poses the question as a subtitle to his article – ‘Are we over-thinking planning?’.  In all actuality, based on his article and my own experiences, no – in fact we’re under-thinking it by maintaining a cookie cutter approach across the entire nation.

Canton’s commentary is similar to the thoughts I had in an earlier post on the (mis)use of templates in emergency planning.  Standards are good to have in every industry, certainly in emergency management and homeland security.  There are folks who become true experts through a great deal of experience, research, and trial and error.  The best ones share their expertise with the rest of the world in the hopes that we can all benefit.  Eventually, these standards become embraced by ‘standard setters’ – those in government or regulatory bodies who can pass laws, regulations, or codes to compel others to adhere to these standards.  This is all absolutely necessary – but, as Canton mentions, these standards become the basis for how people plan.

Just like I often write in my training-related posts, it’s all about the audience.  Our planning priority must be to meet the needs of the jurisdiction/company/organization who will be using the plan.  The plan must have utility – i.e. it must be usable.  Just because a plan meets established standards, does not mean that it can be operationalized.  Obviously our plans must still meet standards, but that really is a secondary concern to usability.  I think we are missing the forest for the trees and need to seriously re-think how we plan.

Any ideas?

Safeguarding our Electrical Grid – Reblog

More thoughts on the vulnerabilities of our electrical grid.  Great post.

andyblumenthal

Image

Popular Science (28 January 2013) has an interesting article on “How To Save The Electrical Grid.”

Power use has skyrocketed with home appliances, TVs, and computers, causing a significant increase in demand and “pushing electricity through lines that were never intended to handle such high loads.”

Our electrical infrastructure is aging with transformers “now more than 40 years old on average and 70% of transmission lines are at least 25 years old” while at the same time over the last three decades average U.S. household power consumption has tripled!

The result is that the U.S. experiences over 100 mass outages a year to our electrical systems from storms, tornados, wildfires and other disasters.

According to the Congressional Research Service, “cost estimates from storm-related outages to the U.S. economy at between $20 billion and $55 billion annually.”

For example, in Hurricane Sandy 8 millions homes in 21 states lost power, and…

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Rise of the Remote Volunteer

This is a great idea that provides opportunities for volunteers and leverages more resources at a reduced burden to provide assistance to those in need!  Reblogged from http://www.recovers.org.

Recovers

People are wonderful.

After a disaster, there is a flood of goodwill that pours into communities to help with the local recovery effort. These volunteers and donors come not only from within the community, but from areas all over the US.

Map2

The Problem
Unfortunately, it is hard for someone in California to help someone in New York in a meaningful way — they would have to travel to the devastated community. This is not only costly, but also causes an unnecessary influx of people to an unsafe disaster area.

The Remote Volunteer
We’re helping change this pattern and allow people across the country to volunteer meaningfully without rushing into a disaster zone. Using the Recovers.org platform, a California resident has the ability to help in a New York recovery effort, without ever leaving their home. We’re seeing a new class created – the remote volunteer. Since the Recovers.org software…

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Audience Analysis Worksheet

Go to this site to view the article posted about the audience analysis worksheet assembled by Andrew Dlugan with Six Minutes Speaking and Presentation Skills.  Andrew has a great website filled with plenty of tips on public speaking and presentations.  This worksheet is part of his recent Audience Analysis series.  This series and the worksheet are great reminders that in teaching and presenting we need to always be focused on our audience and their needs.  You should be able to run through this worksheet well in advance of the actual speaking engagement, and the data derived will help you to shape the format and content of your presentation and presentation style.

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 7: Develop Exercise Documentation

This post is part of a 10-part series on Managing an Exercise Program. In this series I provide some of my own lessons learned in the program and project management aspects of managing, designing, conducting, and evaluating Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) exercises. Your feedback is appreciated!

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 1

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 2: Develop a Preparedness Strategy

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 3: Identify Program Resources and Funding

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 4: Conduct an Annual Training & Exercise Planning Workshop.

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 5: Securing Project Funding

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 6: Conducting Exercise Planning Conferences

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 7: Develop Exercise Documentation

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 8: Preparing Support, Personnel, & Logistical Requirements

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 9: Conducting an Exercise

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 10: Evaluation and Improvement Planning

 

First I’d like to say that this series of exercise articles has gotten a fair amount of traffic, which I’m quite grateful for.  I’m hopeful that my thoughts and ideas have been able to help those who are looking for experienced insight into emergency management and homeland security exercises.  Certainly if you have anything that you’d like to contribute or have any questions, please post a comment.

We can’t avoid paperwork – ever.  Documentation in exercises, just like in the incident command system (ICS), is a necessity.  Don’t see it as a burden, though, instead view these documents as outcomes of the planning and decision-making process of exercise design.  Just like an incident action plan (IAP) is the result of the planning process in ICS, the primary documents used in exercises (Exercise Plans, Control and Evaluation Plans, Exercise Evaluation Guides, Situation Manual, and Master Scenario Events List) are outcomes of the processes of exercise design.  The graphic below is from HSEEP Volume 2 and provides a quick reference of each document I just listed.  As you will see, each document meets a specific need and is intended for a specific audience.  I will outline some of my tips on each document (except the presentation) below.

Primary HSEEP Documents

Primary HSEEP Documents

Exercise Evaluation Guides (EEGs)  The National Exercise Program provides a variety of EEG templates on their website.  These are an excellent start for your exercise.  Remember that these can and should be customized for your exercise!  While we use capabilities-based exercise planning concepts, and the capabilities are standardized, both the capacity available to anyone in each capability and the means by which a capability is implemented is going to very broadly across the country.  Bottom line: we don’t all do things the same way and we may not be evaluating an entire capability as it’s commonly defined.  EEGs need to be focused on evaluating objectives within given capabilities.  This means that exercise objectives need to be very well-developed to ensure that we are 1) designing an exercise effectively, and 2) evaluating that exercise appropriately.  If we fail in any of these steps (objective development, exercise design, exercise evaluation) we are simply wasting our time.  If need be, draw in your subject matter experts (likely the folks who will be evaluating these areas of the exercise) and get their input on the development of the EEG.  Also consider what the purpose of the EEG is: it helps guide the evaluator in providing constructive commentary on each exercise objective, which will ultimately contribute toward the After Action Report (AAR).

Situation Manual (SitMan)  A SitMan, as stated in the chart above, is used only in discussion-based exercises and is available to all participants.  It should include all information participants need to know to effectively play their role in the exercise.   The most important aspect of this is context and background of the scenario.  Without a well-developed scenario, players have a difficult time getting their ‘head in the game’.  The SitMan will also outline the exercise structure and rules of play, which can vary widely between exercise types (i.e. seminar, workshop, or table top).  Having a good understanding of this information will help players to know what is expected of them.  Be sure to have this (and all) documents reviewed for readability – your focus should be on the audience!  Under most circumstances, the SitMan can be distributed to participants ahead of time.

Controller/Evaluator Plan/Handbook  This document is very audience-focused and as such should very clearly outline the expectations you have of the controllers and evaluators.  It should fully describe their positions, schedules, locations, and scope, as well as expectations.

Exercise Plan (ExPlan)  The ExPlan is often times the core document that everyone wants a copy of – and largely everyone should have access to.  Consider the ExPlan just like the IAP of an incident.  It fully describes what is taking place, where, when, how, and who is involved.  This document will be as complex as your exercise.  For exercises involving multiple venues, each venue should have its own sub-section in the ExPlan describing all the details of what is happening there.

Master Scenario Events List (MSEL)  The MSEL is the script of the exercise.  It should capture everything that is scheduled to occur – from StartEx to EndEx and everything in between.  The bulk of the document is injects, which should be written in detail and carefully reviewed and edited for content and accuracy.  Contingency or back-up injects should also be included but specially indicated as such.  Simulators should keep track of the actual time an inject was performed and what the response was, if any.  This data can be important for both in-exercise follow-up as well as post-exercise evaluation.

Other Documents  Don’t get stuck within the confines of what’s defined by HSEEP.  If you find that you need something else, create it and use it.  I’ve found on several exercises that a very detailed scenario, perhaps even including simulated situation reports and incident action plans is needed.  We’ve come to regard this document as a Ground Truth.  The information in a ground truth doesn’t necessarily need to go to everyone (thus not including it in the ExPlan), especially if the exercise will cover multiple operational periods/shift changes, as the ground truth information is largely only relevant to the starting players.

What tips or experiences do you have with exercise documents?  What other documents have you formulated to meet needs?

Thanks for reading, and be on the look out for Managing an Exercise Program – Part 8: Prepare Support Personnel and Logistical Requirements

 

 

 

 

 

Reblog – School Security

Excellent guidance, not only for schools but for other facilities as well.

Diamond Security

School EntranceAlthough the facts remain unclear as to how Adam Lanza, 20, was able to enter Sandy Hook Elementary School and kill 26 children and adults on Friday, news reports indicate he forced his way into the front entrance, possibly by shooting out or somehow breaking glass in the office’s door or window. It has also been reported that the front entrance was equipped with an intercom/camera system designed to screen visitors. Additionally, all of the other entrances/exits to the school were locked by the time Lanza entered the school.

What the official investigation will reveal remains to be seen. That said, considering the attack began at the school’s front door, it would behoove K-5 officials to review the security of their campuses’ entrances.

If anything good can come from Sandy Hook, it’s the knowledge that the security upgrades recently implemented at the school, as well as the heroic actions of…

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Managing an Exercise Program – Part 6: Conducting Exercise Planning Conferences

This post is part of a 10-part series on Managing an Exercise Program. In this series I provide some of my own lessons learned in the program and project management aspects of managing, designing, conducting, and evaluating Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) exercises. Your feedback is appreciated!

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 1

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 2: Develop a Preparedness Strategy

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 3: Identify Program Resources and Funding

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 4: Conduct an Annual Training & Exercise Planning Workshop.

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 5: Securing Project Funding

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 6: Conducting Exercise Planning Conferences

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 7: Develop Exercise Documentation

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 8: Preparing Support, Personnel, & Logistical Requirements

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 9: Conducting an Exercise

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 10: Evaluation and Improvement Planning

Conducting exercise planning conferences is one of my favorite parts of exercise project management (note that in these phases, we transitioned in the previous step from program management to project management – although in the big picture we are still managing our exercise program and the projects within it).

Timothy Riecker

HSEEP Cycle

You will notice that the HSEEP cycle doesn’t provide specific steps for gaining buy-in for your exercise or organizing your planning team.  These are identified in HSEEP Volume II, which you should be using as a reference.  I mentioned getting buy-in for the general concept of your exercise in Part 5 as part of building your business case for obtaining funding.  Obviously securing buy-in is extremely important as you won’t be able to move forward with the exercise initiative without the blessing of not only your executives but those of any partnering agencies or organizations.  Speaking of executives, you will want to ensure that they are provided with regular briefings (either orally or in writing – whichever is most appropriate) throughout the design phase.  It’s important to ensure their continued support, especially as the exercise is fleshed out and the commitment of their agency resources is solidified.

I won’t spend a lot of time discussing the membership of the planning team as I have given plenty of lip service in earlier posts in this series to ensuring that you surround yourself with the right people and make the right connections and partnership with other agencies.  Organization of the planning team is very important, however.  A smaller team rather than a larger one is easier to manage and coordinate – especially for your core team.  I’ve seen great success personally in two tiers of planning teams.  The first is a core team – these are the folks who do most of the work and make most of the decisions – thus they come from the most significantly involved stakeholders.  You want people know exercises and generally have experience in planning them.  The second tier planning team consists of everyone else.  There may be a number of entities who want to participate in the exercise but will have limited participation (such as most individual agencies participating in a table top exercise or in a functional exercise in your EOC).  The input of these agencies is important, as they will provide their own exercise objectives and other ideas, but their planning role is generally limited to their own participation rather than that of multiple agencies.  Not every agency needs to be represented in the planning team directly.  In the even of several fire departments, for example, being represented in a larger-scope exercise, perhaps the department which you expect to have the most participation could represent the interests of the others.  It’s important, however, to not forget that these other agencies are participating.  Many of these folks will need to be guided through the exercise planning process and provided with some assistance to ensure that they meet the deliverables due to you (such as templates for exercise objectives).  You may even want to consider some small seminars on HSEEP, specifically the exercise planning and design process.  Lastly, the individuals themselves should be folks who are not playing in the exercise.  I’m generally not a fan of the ‘trusted agent’ concept, unless you have little choice to do so.

HSEEP recommends an organization similar to an ICS-based model for your planning team.  That is, certain agencies (and their representatives) would be part of ‘command’, others would be part of operations, logistics, safety, public information, planning, etc.  Personally I’m not a fan of using a fairly rigid structure like this for exercise planning.  I find that too often, certain agencies will need to migrate from function to function.  Also, from my experience, the agencies who would be part of ‘command’ are usually also the ‘planning’ group (these agencies are usually the core, or first tier planning team).  That said, it does make sense to keep these functions in mind as they do provide for sound project/event management principles.  Going along with this, some agencies may even provide certain individuals in addition to their primary representatives to assist with some of these functions.  Examples would include information officers to put together media releases about the exercise for the public, or logistics folks to help take care of facility and other support needs, and certainly IT folks to help take care of those needs.  We’ll talk about support and logistical requirements more in Part 8 of this series.

Once you have your team assembled, it’s time to begin meetings.  For the sake of discussion, we’ll use the planning of a large multi-agency multi-jurisdiction functional or full-scale exercise as an example.  An exercise of this scope will necessitate the application of all the concepts available within the HSEEP model and thus provide opportunity for us to include them in this discussion.  I’m not going to cover all the details of the meetings, as these are covered in HSEEP Volume II as well as the toolkit, but I will provide my tips for each based upon experience and best practices.  Be sure to get invites out early to identified agencies and specifically identify the type of person you are looking for.  It should be someone very familiar with agency operations, who can fully represent (within reason) the agency and commit resources, who hopefully knows a bit about exercises and emergency management, and who will not be engaged as a player in the exercise.  They will also need to commit to a number of meetings and conference calls as well as some office work time, and may be asked to work as a simulator, controller, or evaluator during the exercise.   Be mindful of good meeting practices like the use of agendas and facilitation of discussion.  Also, be sure to follow-up with everyone after the meeting.

Note that between all of these meetings and conferences, there will be ongoing communication both with the core planning group as well as the full planning group.  These will include conference calls, e-mail exchanges, and smaller face to face meetings as needed.

Concept and Objectives Meeting

The Concept and Objectives Meeting (C&O meeting) is the first formal meeting of the full exercise planning team.  Prior to this meeting, you may pull together the core planning group to establish a planning timeline as well as prepare a presentation of the general concept of the exercise – remember, this is the first time that many of the folks in the meeting will have heard of this exercise.

HSEEP Volume II provides agenda items for this meeting.  Generally, you are providing an overview of the initial exercise concept to the group, gathering ideas on this and reaching consensus.  Volume II indicates that consensus should also be reached on objectives.  While I think some of the broader objectives can be agreed upon at this meeting, I don’t think it will be possible for objectives from all participating agencies to be obtained with a large planning group.  Take the opportunity, however, to discuss what you are looking for, provide sample objectives, and guidance on how to write exercise objectives.  Set a deadline for participants to get these back to you.  A few days should be reasonable.  Lastly, at the C&O meeting, the group may identify other agencies who might be interested in participating.  These agencies should be approached soon after this meeting and invited to the Initial Planning Conference.

Initial Planning Conference

The Initial Planning Conference (IPC) is certainly where exercise participants and objectives should be settled.  You really want to minimize changes after this meeting as the impact they can have on exercise planning and design will be amplified.  The IPC is where the foundational concepts of the exercise will be fleshed out, including venues, duration, political sensitivities, the scenario, and other details.  This meeting largely consists of presentations by the core planners and discussion and consensus by the larger group.  It’s important to get these details solidified with every participant, as stragglers can cause a great delay in progress.  Read-ahead materials are important for all these meetings.  Certain assignments will be given to people and agencies to secure resources and to identify specific roles, including the leadership for exercise control, evaluation, simcell, and others that may be needed – as well as the documentation that goes with them, such as an evaluation plan.  As needs are identified, they should be logged and assigned.  Here’s where you engage participants in starting to address logistical and support needs.

Mid-term Planning Conference

MPCs are usually only used during larger, more complex exercises.  Don’t let that fool you, though – there is probably not only a need to meet, but a lot of work to get done as well.  Schedule it ahead of time, but cancel if you don’t need it.  Since it’s optional, there is really no specific guidance, other than ensuring to go into it with defined purpose, an agenda, read-ahead materials (such as drafts of exercise documentation), etc.  As HSEEP Volume II mentions, it’s usually a working meeting designed to get pen to paper and hammer out details.  Volume II also suggests that this is a good opportunity to walk through exercise venues to make sure they are suitable and to discuss layout and support needs.  This is also a good time to lock down the location, set up, and support needs of a simcell and to identify simulators.

Master Scenario Events List (MSEL) Conference

The focus of the MSEL conference is the development of the MSEL.  The Master Scenario Events List is the detailed timeline of the exercise, identifying everything from the start and end times to detailing every inject and expected player action.  While the writing of the MSEL (mostly injects) is often times work that falls to the core planning group (and often times consultants), the MSEL conference is used to pull participating agencies together to draft injects for their agency or function.  Here is where they bring their objectives to life, providing the outlines for injects (which will likely be refined later by the core planning group) to drive play for their agency to accomplish the objectives of their participation in the exercise.  The MSEL conference is really a workshop.  You can break out like-agencies into table groups where they can brainstorm and outline injects, as well as identify any issues to be aware of.  The best way of doing this is to assign a facilitator (usually a member of the core planning group) to each table to get them motivated, keep them on task, and to document progress.  Pay special attention to the outcomes as they may cause need to alter earlier preparations such as venue needs.  More on the MSEL in Part 7 of this series.

Final Planning Conference

The Final Planning Conference (FPC) is just that – final!  This is an informative meeting where everything is reviewed and agreed upon to be finalized.  Any outlying issues must be resolved here.  Participants should have reviewed all documents ahead of time so they can ask questions and provide their approval.  This conference should take care of any last-minute issues.

What have you learned from your experienced with exercise planning meetings?  I’d like to hear about your experiences and ideas!

Look out for Managing an Exercise Program – Part 7: Developing Exercise Documentation.

 

Visual Presentation Design

I’ve been following Alex’s blog for a while now – the work she and her peers do in presentation design is truly revolutionary. This post, in particular, is a great introduction to how she works. I’ve certainly been at fault for many years for designing presentations like documents. It’s a tough habit to break, but I’m committing to the visual design method from now on!

If you do any kind of training or presentations – FOLLOW HER BLOG! She gives a ton of great advice!

Creating Communication

When I learned that I would have a few very special guests attending my visual design lecture, I redesigned my lesson plans.  While these lessons aren’t quite Slideshare-ready yet, I would like to share them with you over the next few days.  I promise to debut the new visual design Slideshare presentation before the end of January!

The new lessons focus on teaching my students 7 key rules for effective slide design.  Today, we’ll begin with rule number one:

ruleone1

The most basic lesson we learn first in my visual design class is that slides are not documents.  In order to create slides that use the Keynote or PowerPoint medium as it was intended to be used – for a visual purpose – we must set up our slides for success.

Setting our slides up for failure looks a little something like this:

ruleone2

We select a template in Keynote…

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Managing an Exercise Program – Part 5: Securing Project Funding

This post is part of a 10-part series on Managing an Exercise Program. In this series I provide some of my own lessons learned in the program and project management aspects of managing, designing, conducting, and evaluating Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) exercises. Your feedback is appreciated!

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 1

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 2: Develop a Preparedness Strategy

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 3: Identify Program Resources and Funding

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 4: Conduct an Annual Training & Exercise Planning Workshop.

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 5: Securing Project Funding

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 6: Conducting Exercise Planning Conferences

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 7: Develop Exercise Documentation

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 8: Preparing Support, Personnel, & Logistical Requirements

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 9: Conducting an Exercise

Managing an Exercise Program – Part 10: Evaluation and Improvement Planning

Timothy Riecker

HSEEP Cycle

Nothing moves without funding – nothing.  Without funding, good ideas are nothing more than that – ideas.  I’ve seen many ideas and initiatives die before they even made it to the proverbial chopping block, simply because of a lack of money to support them.  This is the time of year when we see a lot of new ideas.  In public and private sectors alike, our leaders, motivated either by legislative writ or self driven compulsion, give us an annual speech to ring in the new year.  These speeches come with lofty ideas – many of which we never see get off the ground because funding is never allocated.  So where do we get money to conduct exercises?

Timothy RieckerAdmittedly, my expertise lies in government and the funds available to build and sustain emergency management programs – not so much in the private sector and not for profit areas, but I’ll give these a crack.  Public sector funds consist largely of the Homeland Security Grant Program (HSGP).  HSGP funds a myriad of emergency management and homeland security grants including the Emergency Management Performance Grant (EMPG), the Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI), Operation Stone Garden (OPSG), and others, including Citizen Corps which is now no longer a separate grant program, but instead an optional allocation which states may choose to provide.  Generally, exercises, and the expenses associated with all steps of the exercise program and project, are allowable expenses for all these grant programs.

How do you get these funds?  Well, the bad news is that if you don’t already receive them, you probably can’t.  There are some allocations, like Citizen Corps, which may be granted to jurisdictions by the state, but with this example you need to build a local Citizen Corps program and exercise only that program with any dollars you receive.  If you do receive some of these HSGP funds, the challenge is in reallocation of dollars that are probably needed elsewhere, and budget increases are probably out of the question.  So here’s where we have to get creative.  Reach out to the folks who were involved in your TEPW – all those agencies and organizations.  Try to gain consensus on the need for an exercise (or building-block series of them).  Most or all of these agencies may have an interest if you had a successful TEPW and managed to combine some exercise initiatives.  Don’t forget your private sector partners, either – especially if they are members of your Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC), as they may take special interest in preparedness.  Be sure to have a plan and make a business case.  The TEPW that you just conducted (see the previous post in this series) provides you with an excellent statement of need and a plan to address it.  You may have additional supporting documentation like after action reports, which can help add some context to your need for exercise funding.  Build a budget and know how much to ask for.  If each agency and organization can contribute a portion, that will all add up fairly quickly.  Don’t forget the possibility of sponsorships, as well.  I once managed to secure lunches to be provided for all exercise participants (about 150 of them!) in exchange for a medical supply vendor setting up in a near-venue area and giving a presentation during lunch, including the opportunity for folks to try out some of their equipment.

In the private sector, fighting for budget can be tough – especially when it’s not tied to a profit center.  My advice here (and again I have limited experience in this area, so if you have any ideas, please post them!) is, similar to the public sector, 1) make a good business case for it (i.e. improved safety, response coordination, and decreased down time all minimize the loss of revenue), 2) have a plan, and 3) if you are just starting an exercise program – start small.  Let the executives see the potential that can be gained from larger investments in your program.  Similarly, if you can partner with a local public safety exercise, be sure to invite your executives to see how it goes and be ready to explain the benefits to your company.

As for not for profits, largely it’s a combination of the public and private sector tips.  Also, consider seeking grants from foundations for the specific purpose of preparedness.  Don’t just limit yourself to local foundations, either.  Their may be companies that specialize in first responder or emergency equipment that may have a foundation.  I would guess that their foundations would have a particular interest in preparedness activities.

Overall, be sure to plan early.  Don’t expect to seek funding for an exercise that you have planned for a couple of months down the road.  It may take as long as a year to get your financial ducks in a row.

As always, if anyone has any additional thoughts or ideas, I’d love to see them!

Coming soon… Managing an Exercise Program – Part 6: Conducting Exercise Planning Conferences.  It’s more than just meetings!