This morning I suggested to a client the possible use of a playbook as a training supplement for their duty officer program. A playbook is a job aid, but more than just a check list or a chart. Ideally, a playbook is a structured collection of job aids, broken down by situation for easy reference by whomever needs the information.
Playbooks are best known to be most extensively used in American football. They contain a variety of strategies for accomplishing certain objectives (short yardage gain, long yardage gain, end zone scoring, kick return, etc.), with each strategy often accompanied by one or more diagrams of Xs (the opposition) and Os (your team), with lines showing movement and action by certain positions. Playbooks are tested, practiced, and memorized by players before the season begins, but are constantly referenced every game by coaches and players alike.
Fundamentally, the play book exists because there are so many situations the team needs to respond to and several different ways in which they can respond. While some of their plays are fairly routine, others are rarely, if ever, used. Just like emergency management, however, it’s good to have the plan available if we need it.
Assembling a playbook for emergency management purposes doesn’t have any set standard, but as with any other tool or plan we assemble, we must first identify the purpose and the audience. Play books can be assembled for elected officials and executives, duty officers and middle management, or dispatchers and first responders – it all depends on what is needed. One thing that should be stressed, though… playbooks are NOT plans, nor should they be treated as a replacement for training. Playbooks should be based upon established policy, plans, and procedures; and training still should be conducted on those policies, plans, and procedures. A playbook is the collection of job aids which will help us to navigate the things people may not routinely do – which makes them excellent for emergency management applications.
Consider that the content of the playbook won’t (and probably shouldn’t) try to map out an incident from inception to completion. The playbook is intended to address critical actions within an early timeframe of the incident. Following this, a team should be assembled and striving to manage the incident using the planning process and referencing the foundational plans and policies. There may be a few nuanced circumstances and activities within the playbook that are still relevant in the extended response, but these should be few.
The organization and content of the playbook should depend on the objectives and audience of the tool. It should not be heavy in narrative and doesn’t require a lot of background as a plan might. For emergency management purposes, most playbooks are organized by hazard and/or impact, with topics such as Mass Shooting, Severe Storm, or Power Outage. For each topic, the essential elements of response can be identified, perhaps in check-list format. Additional job aids such as decision tables, flow charts, and references can also be incorporated. While I’m a big fan of keeping things digital, playbooks and similar references are better in hard copy, as this helps to ensure the information is always accessible. Bind it (a three ring binder is best, so content can be updated as needed) and insert tabs for easy reference. Be sure to give all users their own copy.
When creating the playbook, consider what information needs to be conveyed. While some repetition may be necessary from topic to topic, reduce the amount of in-document references (i.e. See page 19 for additional information), as the purpose of the document is to help keep people organized. Always keep the user in mind, ensuring that they understand each step and that they have the ability, resources, and authority to perform the identified actions. Ensure that the playbook is a proper reflection of established policy and procedure and be sure to test it for effectiveness. Train people in its content and use, and be sure to provide regular training and content updates and to incorporate its use into exercises.
I’m interested in hearing your thoughts on playbooks and if you have created and/or used them. Of course, if your jurisdiction or organization is looking for assistance in developing a playbook for your critical activities, let us know!
© 2016 – Timothy M. Riecker
Emergency Preparedness Solutions, LLC – Your Partner in Preparedness